• Gimpe, Henner
  • Nißen, Marcia
  • Görlitz, Roland A.


A new generation of patient-driven healthcare information systems (HIS) is emerging to advance traditional healthcare services and empower patient self-responsibility. Pro-fessional approaches to develop or improve HIS exist alongside evolving individual and community-shared approaches where patients take responsibility for their health data and health. Health Social Networks and the Quantified Self community are examples for such patient-driven initiatives. They inherently focus on empowering self-determination and responsibility. The success of future HIS relies – at least partially – on their engi-neers’ and developers’ capability to understand and use impulses from their respective target groups. The present study on self-tracking motivations aims to shed light on what drives people to track themselves. To this end, we conducted an exploratory survey with 150 self-trackers and developed a Five-Factor-Framework of Self-Tracking Motivations. The framework includes an inventory of five factors and a psychometrical scale of 19 items to measure individual drivers for self-tracking.



  1. Agarwal, R., Gao, G., DesRoches, C., and Jha, A. K. 2010. “Research Commentary -The Digital Transformation of Healthcare: Current Status and the Road Ahead,“Information Systems Research(21:4), pp. 796-809.
  2. Baron, R. M., and Kenny, D. A. 1986. “The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction inSocial Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations,“Journal of Personality and Social Psychology(51:6), pp. 1173-1182.
  3. Bélanger, E., Bartlett, G., Dawes, M., Rodríguez, C., and Hasson-Gidoni, I. 2012. “Examining the evidence of the impact of health information technology in primary care: An argument for participatory research with health professionals and patients,“International Journal of Medical Informatics(81:10) 10, pp. 654-661.
  4. Black, A. D., Car, J., Pagliari, C., Anandan, C., Cresswell, K., Bokun, T., McKinstry, B., Procter, R., Majeed, A., and Sheikh, A. 2011. “The impact of eHealth on the quality and safety of health care: a systematic overview,“PLoS medicine(8:1),e1000387.
  5. Browne, M. W., Cudeck, R., Bollen, K. A., and Long, J. S. 1993. “Alternative Ways of Assessing Model Fit,“Sage Focus Editions(154), pp. 136-136.Butterfield, A. D. 2012. “Ethnographic Assessment of Quantified Self Meetup Groups,“, retrieved May 1, 2013. Gimpel et al. / Quantifying the Quantified SelfThirty Fourth International Conference on Information Systems, Milan 201315Byrne, B. M. 1989. A Primer of LISREL: Basic Applications and Programming for Confirmatory Factor Analytic Models,New York: Springer.
  6. Campbell, D. T., and Fiske, D. W. 1959. “Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix,“Psychological Bulletin(56:2), pp. 81-105.
  7. Chaudhry, S. I., Phillips, C. O., Stewart, S. S., Riegel, B., Mattera, J. A., Jerant, A. F., and Krumholz, H. M. 2007. “Telemonitoring for Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: A Systematic Review,“Journal of Cardiac Failure(13:1) 2, pp. 56-62.
  8. Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1997. Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life,New York:Basic Books.
  9. Csikszentmihalyi, M., and Csikszentmihalyi, I. 1975. Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: The Experience of Play in Work and Games,San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Ebner-Priemer, U. W., and Kubiak, T. 2007. “Psychological and Psychophysiological Ambulatory Monitoring,“European Journal of Psychological Assessment(23:4), pp. 214-226.
  10. Eysenbach, G. 2008. “Medicine 2.0: Social Networking, Collaboration, Participation, Apomediation, and Openness,“Journal of Medical Internet Research(10:3).
  11. Fahrenberg, J., Myrtek, M., Pawlik, K., and Perrez, M. 2007. “Ambulatory Assessment-Monitoring Behavior in Daily Life Settings,“European Journal of Psychological Assessment(23:4), pp. 206-213.
  12. Fichman, R. G., Kohli, R., and Krishnan, R. 2011. “The Role of Information Systems in Healthcare: Current Research and Future Trends,“Information Systems Research(22:3), pp. 419-428.
  13. Fox, S., and Duggan, M. 2013. “Tracking for Health,“, retrieved May 1, 2013.
  14. Free, C., Phillips, G., Felix, L., Galli, L., Patel, V., and Edwards, P. 2010. “The Effectiveness of M-health Technologies for Improving Health and Health Services: A Systematic Review Protocol,“BMC Research Notes(3:1), p. 250.
  15. Guadagnoli, E., and Velicer, W. F. 1988. “Relation of Sample Size to the Stability of Component Patterns,“Psychological Bulletin(103:2), pp. 265-275.Haux, R. 2006. “Health Information Systems? Past, Present, Future,“International Journal of Medical Informatics(75:3-4), pp. 268-281.
  16. Hayes, A. F. 2009. “Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical Mediation Analysis in the New Millennium,“Communication Monographs(76:4), pp. 408-420.
  17. Hayton, J. C., Allen, D. G., and Scarpello, V. 2004. “Factor retention decisions in exploratory factor analysis: A tutorial on parallel analysis,“Organizational research methods(7:2), pp. 191-205.
  18. Hinkin, T. R. 1998. “A Brief Tutorial on the Development of Measures for Use in Survey Questionnaires,“Organizational Research Methods(1:1), pp. 104-121.
  19. Horn, J. L. 1965. “A Rationale and Test for the Number of Factors in Factor Analysis,“Psychometrika(30:2), pp. 179-185.Istepanaian, R. S., andZhang, Y.-T. 2012. “Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Section: 4G Health -The Long-Term Evolution of M-health,“IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine(16:1), pp. 1-5.
  20. Jaana, M., and Paré, G. 2007. “Home telemonitoring of patients with diabetes: a systematic assessment of observed effects,“Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice(13:2), pp. 242-253.
  21. Jaana, M., Pare, G., and Sicotte, C. 2009. “Home telemonitoring for respiratory conditions: a systematic review,“AmericanJournal ofManagedCare(15:5), pp. 313-320.
  22. Kelley, H., Chiasson, M., Downey, A., and Pacaud, D. 2011. “The Clinical Impact of eHealth on the Self-Management of Diabetes: a Double Adoption Perspective,“Journal of the Association for Information Systems(12:3), pp. 208-234.
  23. Kelly, K., Wolf, G., Carmichael, A., and Ramirez, E. 2007. “Quantified Self About,“, retrieved May 1, 2013. Levesque, C., Copeland, K. J., Pattie, M. D., and Deci, E. L. 2010. “Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation,“in Peterson, P.,Baker, E.,McGaw, B.(eds.),International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition),Oxford:Elsevier, pp. 618-623.Long, J. S. 1983. Confirmatory factor analysis: A preface to LISREL,Newburry Park:SAGE Publications.
  24. Ludford, P. J., Cosley, D., Frankowski, D., and Terveen, L. 2004. “Think Different: Increasing Online Community Participation Using Uniqueness and Group Dissimilarity,“Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM2004, pp. 631-638.Healthcare Information Systems16Thirty Fourth International Conference on Information Systems, Milan 2013Mandl, K. D., and Kohane, I. S. 2008. “Tectonic Shifts in the Health Information Economy,“New England Journal of Medicine(358:16), pp. 1732-1737.
  25. Mehl, M. R., andHolleran, S. E. 2007. “An Empirical Analysis of the Obtrusiveness of and Participants’ Compliance with the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR),“European Journal of Psychological Assessment(23:4), pp. 248-257.Nunnally, J. C. 1978. Psychometric Theory,New York: McGraw-Hill.Oppenheimer, D. M., Meyvis, T., and Davidenko, N. 2009. “Instructional manipulation checks: Detecting satisficing to increase statistical power,“Journal of Experimental Social Psychology(45:4), pp. 867-872.
  26. Paré, G., Jaana, M., and Sicotte, C. 2007. “Systematic Review of Home Telemonitoring for Chronic Diseases: The Evidence Base,“Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association(14:3), pp. 269-277.
  27. Polisena, J., Tran, K., Cimon, K., Hutton, B., McGill, S., Palmer, K., and Scott, R. E. 2010. “Home telehealth for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,“Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare(16:3), pp. 120-127.
  28. Preece, J., and Shneiderman, B. 2009. “The Reader-to-Leader Framework: Motivating Technology-Mediated Social Participation,“AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction(1:1), pp. 13-32.
  29. Rammstedt, B., and John, O. P. 2007. “Measuring personality in one minute or less: A10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory,“Journal of Research in Personality, pp. 203-212.
  30. Robinson, J. 1991. “Criteria for scale selection and evaluation,“in Robinson,J.P., Shaver,P.R.,Wrightsman,L.S.(eds),Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes,San Diego:Academic Press.
  31. Schmidt, S., Schuchert, A., Krieg, T., and Oeff, M. 2010. “Home Telemonitoring in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure: A Chance to Improve Patient Care?“Deutsches Ärzteblatt International(107:8), p. 131.
  32. Schriesheim, C. A., Powers, K. J., Scandura, T.A., Gardiner, C. C., and Lankau, M. J. 1993. “Improving Construct Measurement in Management Research: Comments and a Quantitative Approach for Assessing the Theoretical Content Adequacy of Paper-and-Pencil Survey-Type Instruments,“Journal of Management(19:2), pp. 385-417.
  33. Shin, M. 2012. “Secure Remote Health Monitoring with Unreliable Mobile Devices,“Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology,Article ID 546021.
  34. Singh, R., Mathiassen, L., Stachura, M. E., and Astapova, E. V. 2011. “Dynamic Capabilities in Home Health: IT-Enabled Transformation of Post-Acute Care,“Journal of the Association for Information Systems(12:2), pp. 163-188.
  35. Stone, E. F., and Stone Eugene, F. 1978. Research Methods in Organizational Behavior,Santa Monica: Goodyear Publishing Company .
  36. Swan, M. 2009. “Emerging Patient-Driven Health Care Models: An Examination of Health Social Networks, Consumer Personalized Medicine and Quantified Self-Tracking,“International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health(6), pp. 492-525.
  37. Tedjamulia, S. J., Dean, D. L., Olsen, D. R., and Albrecht, C. C. 2005. “Motivating Content Contributions to Online Communities: Toward a more Comprehensive Theory,“HICSS’05Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference onSystem Sciences, pp. 193.2.
  38. TheEconomist. 2012. “The Quantified Self: Counting Every Moment,“, retrieved May 1, 2013.
  39. Trueman, P. 2009. “Economic Considerationsof Remote Monitoring in Chronic Conditions,“Eurohealth(15:1), p. 10.
  40. Trull, T. J., and Ebner-Priemer, U. 2012. “Ambulatory Assessment,“Annual Review of Clinical Psychology(9), pp. 151-176.
  41. Wolf, G. 2008. “Quantified Self,“, retrieved May 1, 2013.
  42. Wolf, G. 2010. “The Data-Driven Life,“, retrieved May 1, 2013