• Li, Ian
  • Dey, Anind K
  • Forlizzi, Jodi


This study explores whether different religions experience different levels of happiness and life satisfaction and in case this is affected by country economic and cultural environment. Using World Value Survey (from 1981 to 2014), this study found that individual religiosity and country level of development play a significant role in shaping people’s subjective well-being (SWB). Protestants, Buddhists and Roman Catholic were happier and most satisfied with their lives compared to other religious groups. Orthodox has the lowest SWB. Health status, household’s financial satisfaction and freedom of choice are means by which religious groups and governments across the globe can improve the SWB of their citizens.


  1. Abowd, G.D. & Mynatt, E.D. Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing. TOCHI, 2000, pp. 29–58.
  2. Andrews, D. The IRG Solution – Hierarchical Incompetence and How to Overcome It. Souvenir Press: London, 1984.
  3. Brophy-Warren, J. “The New Examined Life.” Wall Street Journal, 6 Dec 2008.
  4. Card, S.K., Mackinlay, J.D., & Shneiderman, B. Readings in information visualization: using vision to think. Morgan Kaufman: 1999.
  5. Carver, C. & Scheier, M.F. On the self-regulation of behavior. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  6. Consolvo, S., McDonald, D.W., & Landay, J. Theory-Driven Design Strategies for Technologies that Support Behavior Change in Everyday Life. CHI’09, pp. 405–414.
  7. DiClemente, C.C., Marinilli, A.S., Singh, B., & Bellino, E. The Role of Feedback in the Process of Health Behavior Change. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25(3), 2000, pp. 217–227.
  8. Endsley, M.R. The Role of Situation Awareness in Naturalistic Decision Making. Naturalistic Decision Making, 1997, pp. 269–282.
  9. Freeman, E. & Gelernter, D. Lifestreams: A Storage Model for Personal Data. SIGMOD Record, 25(1), 1996, pp. 80–86.
  10. Froehlich, J., Dillahunt, T., Klasnja, P., Mankoff, J., Consolvo, S., Harrison, B., & Landay, J.A. Ubigreen: Investigating a Mobile Tool for Tracking and Supporting Green Transportation Habits. CHI’09, pp. 1043–1052.
  11. Frost, J. and Smith, B.K. Visualizing Health: imagery in diabetes education. DUX’03, pp. 1–14.
  12. Gemmell, J., Bell, G., and Lueder, R. MyLifeBits: a personal database for everything. Communications of the ACM, 2006, pp. 88–95.
  13. He, A.H., Greenberg, S., & Huang, E.M. One Size Does Not Fit All: Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Energy Feedback Technology Design. CHI’10, pp. 927–936.
  14. Hodges, S., Williams, L., Berry, E., et al. SenseCam: A Retrospective Memory Aid. Ubicomp’06, pp. 177–193.
  15. Intille, S.S., Rondoni, J., Kukla, C., Ancona, I., & Bao, L. A Context-Aware Experience Sampling Tool. CHI’03, pp. 972–973.
  16. Jones, W., & Teevan, J. Personal Information Management. UW Press, 2007.
  17. Li, I., Dey, A.K., & Forlizzi, J. A Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics Systems. CHI’10, pp. 557–566.
  18. Lin, J.J., Mamykina, L., Lindtner, S., Delajoux, G., & Strub, H.B. Fish’n’Steps: Encouraging Physical Activity with an Interactive Computer Game. Ubicomp’06, pp. 261–278.
  19. Matthews, T., Rattenbury, T., & Carter, S. Defining, designing, and evaluating peripheral displays: an analysis using Activity Theory. Human-Computer Interaction Journal, 22(1), 2007.
  20. Miller, T. & Stasko, J. Artistically Conveying Information with the InfoCanvas: A Highly, Personalized, Elegant Awareness Display. AVI’02.
  21. Peesapati, S.T., Schwanda, V., Schultz, J., Lepage, M., Jeong, S., & Cosley, D. Pensieve: Supporting Everyday Reminiscence. CHI’10, pp. 2027–2036.
  22. Pousman, Z. & Stasko, J. A Taxonomy of Ambient Information Systems: Four Patterns of Design. AVI’06, pp. 67–74.
  23. Powers, W.T. Behavior: The control of perception. Chicago: Alidine, 1973.
  24. Preuveneers, D. & Berbers, Y. Mobile Phones Assisting With Health Self-Care: a Diabetes Case Study. MobileHCI’08, pp. 177–186.
  25. Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F. The Transtheoretical Model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12(1), 1997, pp. 38–48.
  26. Schank, R.C. & Abelson, R.P. Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1977.
  27. Schunk, D. H., & Swartz, C. W. Goals and progress feedback: Effects on self-efficacy and writing achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18(3), 1993, pp. 337–354.
  28. Seligman, C., & Delay, J.M. Feedback as a Means of Decreasing Residential Energy Consumption. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 1977, pp. 363–368.
  29. Weiser, M. The Computer for the 21st Century. SIGMOBILE, 3(3), July 1991, pp. 3–11.
  30. Wolf, G. “The Data-Driven Life.” The New York Times, 28 April 2010.